What is an ISA and how does it work?

If you’ve ever wondered “what is an ISA and how does it work?”, you’ll find the answers to all your questions in this easy-to-digest article.

An Individual Savings Account, or ISA for short, is a type of dedicated savings account that people never need to pay tax on. However, it does have certain limitations. The amount of money that a person is allowed to invest or save in a single tax year within an ISA is restricted. For the present tax year, this amount is £20,000. This restriction is also commonly known as an annual ISA allowance.

There are two main types of ISA that people can select from – Stocks and Shares ISAs and Cash ISAs.

What exactly is a Cash ISA and how does it work?

For the most part, a Cash ISA will work in the same way as ordinary savings accounts you might have, but the key difference is that you won’t have to pay any tax on any interest that your money accumulates.

Is it possible for anybody to have Cash ISA?

To open a Cash ISA in this country, you must be a registered UK resident who is at least 16 years old or over; however, Junior ISAs are also an option that can be set up for younger children. It is worth noting that if you’re gifting money into your child’s ISA and they’re 16 or 17, you may be liable to pay tax when interest is earned.

How many Cash ISAs can you have?

You can divide your £20,000 annual allowance into four different kinds of ISA, but you can only open a single Cash ISA in an individual tax year.

Can Cash ISAs be a useful option?

For people who normally have to pay tax on the money they have saved, a Cash ISA can be an option worth considering. While the Personal Savings Allowance (PSA) on the surface might make ISAs seen less attractive, they can still have value, as any cash that is saved in an ISA will remain tax-free for an indefinite period of time. Although they might not have accumulated enough savings to earn up to £1,000 worth of interest, they could potentially do so in the future.

Savers may also consider a different option, like equity-based ISAs, which invest in stocks and shares; however, these are potentially riskier, and to gain the most benefit from them, longer-term investment is often a necessity.

What exactly is a Stocks and Shares ISA and how does it work?

ISAs designed specifically for investments are called Stocks and Shares ISAs. Instead of just saving, people invest in bonds, commercial property and gilts, as well as stocks and shares, to grow their savings, and any returns or interest acquired over time is tax free.

A dedicated Stocks and Shares ISA can have the potential for greater and faster growth. However, as it is based on the fluctuating stock market, a certain amount of risk is involved. Ultimately, there’s always a chance that the amount of money held in an ISA can decrease, as well as increase.

Why do many savers select Stocks and Shares ISAs?

Keeping accumulated wealth in easy-to-access cash form can be the right approach when people’s savings represent money that may be needed in the short-term. A possible issue might arise when cash then becomes a longer-term investment, a reality faced by many savers using Cash ISAs.

If the returns on a person’s Cash ISA savings are no longer keeping in step with inflation, then their spending power is effectively reducing. Now, with current interest rates experiencing close to record lows, depending on cash as an integral part of a long-term strategy for saving and wealth management can place a person’s financial security in the future in jeopardy.

However, unlike Cash ISAs, Stocks and Shares ISAs have the potential to invest in a diverse range of assets, providing the possibility of longer-term returns. Examples of these are fixed interest investments and equities, like government and corporate bonds.

Some people making investments may be nervous when investing a single lump sum and worried regarding the risks of their timing being incorrect, particularly during times of market volatility. However, a longer-term view is vital, as even professional and experienced investors cannot consistently time market fluctuations.

Making investments regularly can help ease the worry of investing at the incorrect time. This method of drip-feeding personal funds into the market can also alleviate fears of investing one day to then see the price plummet the following day.

What other types of ISAs are there?

Along with Stocks and Shares ISAs and Cash ISAs, there are additional types that have been developed to assist people to make savings for different reasons.

A Lifetime ISA (LISA) is designed to help people save either for retirement or for the first home they will own. A Junior ISA, as aforementioned, is an account to assist parents to save money for their children.

What are the advantages of an ISA?

To sum up, ISAs have many different benefits for savers. Their money will be able to grow without tax needing to be paid, with an annual allowance currently set at £20,000 per tax year.

Every new tax year, this annual allowance begins again, and savers can also transfer any existing ISAs into a new one. Children of ages between 16 and 18 are allowed to be holders of both standard Cash ISAs and Junior ISAs simultaneously. Additionally, specific ISAs are also available that can help people save for their first property or their retirement in the future.

If you’ve been considering the question “what is an ISA and how does it work?”, and you’d like to discuss your savings options with a financial advisor in Shropshire, we can help. At Hartey Wealth Management, we assist our clients by devising strategies to mitigate how much tax they must pay. Please don’t hesitate to get in touch with our specialist team today for any advice you require.


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